CANADA | Summary (2024)



GDP: 1.736 Trillion USD1
Health Expenditure (% ofGDP):10.57%2

  • Population:37.74 million
  • Housing:81.2% Urban, 18.8% Rural


The Government of Canada tells the story of the history of its health care system. Under the Constitution Act of1867,health care was the responsibility of provinces, and was privately funded and delivered through World War II.4In 1947, led by leader Tommy Douglas, the province of Saskatchewan providedthe first provincial hospital care program.4Then, in 1957, major health legislation was passedcalled the Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act (HIDS). It financed approximately 50% of health care expenses in the provinces and territories.4 During this time, doctors, insurance companies, and big businesses were fighting against the expansion of public health coverage. In 1960, according to the Canadian Health Coalition, the Canadian Medical Association joined in the protest by opposing all publicly funded health care.5 In 1962, Saskatchewan’s government introduced the first medical insurance plan for physicians' services.4 Doctors refused to comply with the government-controlled scheme,and many went on strike andclosed their offices or took a temporary leave from providing health services.The strike collapsed in just three weeks.4

The Medical CareAct, also known as Medicare, passed in 1966.4 This act, "offered to reimburse, or cost share, one-half of provincial and territorial costs for medical services provided by a doctor outside hospitals. Within six years, all the provinces and territories had universal physician services insurance plans.4" The last major health legislation was the Canada Health Act in 1984.4 The act addressed the issue of “extra-billing,”which doctors were using to raise their income, by banning it.4 It also set requirements for all provincial and territorial health plans to abide by by setting"conditions and criteria on portability, accessibility, universality, comprehensiveness, public administration."4


Canada has universal health coverage funded through a health system called Medicare. It was created from the Canada Health Act and must comply with the five pillars of that act.6 The system must be universal, publicly administered, have comprehensive coverage, portable across provinces, and accessible to the population.6Medicare covers 100% of the population and each province or territory manages all of its own residents with their specific residency requirements.The health system is funded mainly by provincial or territorial general tax revenue with some federal transfers and is free at the point of delivery for citizens.There is no cost-sharing for inpatient or outpatient care and prescription drug prices vary but are still inexpensive. There are some safety-net, public programs that assist low-income individuals, children with disabilities, and the elderly with prescription drug costs. Non-citizens such as temporary legal visitors and undocumented immigrants are not entitled to Medicare but provinces and territories may provide limited emergency services to these populations since medical care can’t be refused in an emergency.6

According to The Commonwealth Fund, about 67% of Canadians have some sort of private, supplementary coverage for prescription drugs, dental and eye care, rehabilitation services, and private hospital rooms which Medicare does not cover. Overall, Canadians are allowed to choose where they receive health care services and even have flexibility in other provinces and territories. If a Canadian citizen receives care outside of their province or territory, they pay upfront and receive reimbursem*nts from their home province or territory. It is important to note an individual is reimbursed at their home province’s fee schedule, therefore, if rates are different they may end up covering the rest.10

Most hospitals are publicly funded and are required to function under a fixed budget. Most family physicians are private and operate on a fee-for-service payment system. The Canadian government also heavily regulates the health system and may limit services as a strategy to contain costs which may lead to longer wait times. Another challenge for the Canadian health system is a lack of cohesiveness and coordination within the system. Although they have universal health coverage and favorable health outcomes, Canada doesn’t reach better results like the Netherlands or other Nordic countries due to the lack of efficiency in the health system.11


The country provides excellent access to health care and has low rates of health disparities leading to overall favorable health outcomes throughout the whole country.

  • Fertility Rate: 1.5 live births per woman
  • Life Expectancy (Female, Male): 85,81
  • Infant Mortality Rate: 3.9 deaths per 1,000 live births
  • Child Mortality Rate: 4.8 per 1,000 live births
  • Maternal Mortality Rate: 8.3 deaths per 100,000 live births
  • Prevalence of Obesity: 26.3%
  • White NH: 75%
  • Asian: 14%
  • Native: 5%
  • Black NH: 3%
  • Hispanic/Latino: 2%
  • Other: 1%
  • 0-14 years: 15.4%
  • 15-24 years: 11.6%
  • 25-54 years: 39.6%
  • 55-64 years: 14.2%
  • 65 years and over: 19.1%


1 The World Bank. (2019). Canada . Data.

2 The World Bank. (2017). Current health expenditure (% of GDP). Data.

3 Canada Population 2020 (Live). Canada Population 2020 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs). (2020).

4 Canada's Health Care System.

5 Canadian Health Coalition.

6 Tikkanen, R. (2020, June 5). Canada.

7 Canada Population (LIVE). (2020).

8 Canada Age Structure. (2020). Retrieved from

9 Geography Now! Canada. (2015).

10 Canada's Provincial Health Plans - What Does Your Province Cover? Special Benefits Insurance Services. (2019, October 15).

11 How is the delivery system organized and how are providers paid? Commonwealth Fund.

CANADA | Summary (2024)


What is a brief summary of Canada? ›

It is the second largest country in the world, but it has only one-half of one percent of the world's population. Canada features black-blue lakes, numerous rivers, majestic western mountains, rolling central plains, and forested eastern valleys.

What is the main thing about Canada? ›

A vast, rugged land, Canada is the second largest country in the world (Russia being the largest) but only 0.5% of the world's population live there. Canada has a varied landscape, with majestic mountains, rolling plains, forested valleys, and beautiful blue rivers and lakes.

What is Canada famous for? ›

What is Canada famous For?
  • Jasper National Park. Jasper National Park in Alberta is known for its snowy mountains and beautiful scenery. ...
  • Niagara Falls. Niagara Falls is a must-visit spot in Canada. ...
  • Poutine. ...
  • Vancouver. ...
  • World's largest coastline. ...
  • Maple syrup. ...
  • Ice hockey. ...
  • Northern lights.
Jan 11, 2024

Why is Canada an important country? ›

While the service sector is Canada's biggest economic driver, the country is a significant exporter of energy, food and minerals. Canada ranks third in the world in proven oil reserves and is the world's fourth-largest oil producer.

What can you write about Canada? ›

🎓 Canadian History Essay Topics: University
  • No American Slavery and Canada.
  • Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada.
  • Bilingualism and Bilingual Identity in Canada.
  • The Perception of WWI as an “English War”. ...
  • Canada's International Relationships during the two World Wars.
Nov 9, 2023

How do you describe Canada's location? ›

Canada is at the top of North America above the United States. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. The US is to the south and to the north is the Arctic Ocean. Canada takes up nearly half of the North American continent.

How would you describe a Canadian? ›

Canadians tend to see themselves as reasonable and inclusive people. They are generally very polite. Canada is heavily influenced by its proximity to the USA. As a large majority of Canadians live within 100km of the Canada/USA border, there are similarities in behaviour and accent.

How do you say hello in Canada? ›

A simple handshake, friendly nod, or easy 'hello' is a common way Canadians greet each other amidst the chummy crowd. Overall, Canadian greetings are as warm as a fresh stack of pancakes dripping with maple syrup. Interesting fact? 'Eh', an iconic term, often decorates their lively sentences like a cherry on top.

What is Canada also known as? ›

There are many stereotypes about Canada and Canadians that other nationalities get wrong. But when the country received the nickname of the Great White North, people were telling the truth. Here's why Canada is sometimes referred to as the Great White North.

What is Canada's national animal? ›

The beaver was given official status as an emblem of Canada when an Act to provide for the recognition of the beaver ( castor canadensis ) as a symbol of the sovereignty of Canada received royal assent on March 24, 1975.

Is Canada richer than the USA? ›

As of 1981, per capita GDP in Canada was 92 per cent of that of the U.S.; by 2022 it had fallen to just 73 per cent. Drill down into the national data and it looks even worse. The economist Trevor Tombe has shown that Canada's richest province, Alberta, would rank 14th among U.S. states.

Why is Canada like the US? ›

The people of Canada are descended from much the same stock—half from the British Isles and half from continental Europe. Canadians and Americans have grown up together in the same environment. Either side along the boundary, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the pattern of daily life is much the same.

What I like about Canada in a paragraph? ›

From its diverse landscapes to its friendly, welcoming people, there's a lot that Canada has to offer. The country's immigration programs complement the growing needs of the job market, and after an initial settling-in period, there's no shortage of work opportunities for skilled newcomers.

What is Canadian identity paragraph? ›

Canadian Identity represents the unique culture, peculiarities, social aspects, and characteristics of being a Canadian. It also involves complex community factors and linguistic expressions that place our nation in a specific niche in a cultural arena of the world.

What is the description of Order of Canada? ›

The Order of Canada is how our country honours people who make extraordinary contributions to the nation. Since its creation in 1967—Canada's centennial year—more than 7 600 people from all sectors of society have been invested into the Order.

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